Anchor refers only to the text + link.
How Anchors are used
Anchors are used in text on websites, blogs, social networks, email newsletters, and even PDF documents. They help users click through to another page on your site or to a third-party web resource.
Anchors accomplish several important tasks:
They create navigation and links. Hyperlinks with clear text can quickly redirect the user to another section of the site or potentially interesting material.
Help retain the user. Imagine, the user reads an article, and then through the anchor goes to another, and then a third. His time on the site increases, and trust in the resource grows.
It helps to add keywords and phrases to the text. If you have a technical writing assignment from an SEO specialist, there will definitely be key phrases and linking in the text. In this case, the author must add a link to the desired URL and come up with the appropriate anchor text for it.
Promote the site on third-party resources. Anchors are needed not only within one site. The text with hyperlinks is placed on other resources to promote their material or article, either for a fee or as part of a partnership. This is one of the tools of link building. Anchors also bring users to the site from other channels – social networks, messengers, email lists.